Join Our Email List!
   
   
   

 

The Ardennes Campaign: Battle of the Bulge

 

In late December 1944 German forces staged a massive drive to recapture lost areas in the Ardennes region of Belgium, France and Luxembourg and turn the tide of the war. Ultimately unsuccessful, the offensive lasted from December 16, 1944 to January 25, 1945 when the Allies won a decisive victory in the campaign. Although it became known as the Battle of the Bulge the Allies officially called this the Ardennes Counteroffensive.

21 Army Group General Situation, December 16, 1944 [DDE's Pre-Presidential Papers, Principal File, Box 83, Montgomery Bernard (11); NAID #12125645]

Cable, Dwight D. Eisenhower to Bernard Montgomery, December 19, 1944 [DDE's Pre-Presidential Papers, Principal File, Box 83, Montgomery Bernard (11); NAID #12125646]

Cable, General Dwight D. Eisenhower to General Omar Bradley Regarding Protection of Meuse River Bridges, December 19, 1944 [DDE's Pre-Presidential Papers, Principal File, Box 13, Bradley, Omar N. (5); NAID #12117241]

Telephone Conversation with General Bradley, December 21, 1944 [Harold R. Bull Papers, Box 2, Additional Papers, 1944-1948; NAID #12113396]

Cable, Bernard Montgomery to Dwight D. Eisenhower, December 21, 1944 [DDE's Pre-Presidential Papers, Principal File, Box 83, Montgomery, Bernard (11); NAID #12125649]

Outgoing Message to Every Member of the Allied Expeditionary Force, December 22, 1944 [DDE's Pre-Presidential Papers, Principal File, Box 148, Messages to Officers and Men-Allied Expeditionary Force (A.E.F.) 1943–1948; NAID #12126643]

Cable, Dwight D. Eisenhower to Bernard Montgomery, December 22, 1944 [DDE's Pre-Presidential Papers, Principal File, Box 83, Montgomery, Bernard (11); NAID #12125650]

Cable, Bernard Montgomery to Dwight D. Eisenhower, December 23, 1944 [DDE's Pre-Presidential Papers, Principal File, Box 83, Montgomery, Bernard (11); NAID #12125651]

Cable, Bernard Montgomery to Dwight D. Eisenhower, December 24, 1944 [DDE's Pre-Presidential Papers, Principal File, Box 83, Montgomery, Bernard (11); NAID #12125656]

Diary Entry, December 24, 1944 [DDE's Pre-Presidential Papers, Principal File, Box 169, Butcher's Diary – Oct. 16 – Dec. 31, 1944 (4); NAID #12126625]

Cable, Bernard Montgomery to Dwight D. Eisenhower, December 25, 1944 [DDE's Pre-Presidential Papers, Principal File, Box 83, Montgomery, Bernard (11); NAID #12125674]

Cable, Bernard Montgomery to Dwight D. Eisenhower, December 26, 1944 [DDE's Pre-Presidential Papers, Principal File, Box 83, Montgomery, Bernard (11); NAID #12125681]

Letter, Bernard Montgomery to Dwight D. Eisenhower re operational control of the 12 and 21 Army Groups, December 29, 1944 [DDE's Pre-Presidential Papers, Principal File, Box 83, Montgomery, Bernard (11); NAID #12125686]

Outline Plan of Operations, December 31, 1944 [DDE's Pre-Presidential Papers, Principal File, Box 83, Montgomery, Bernard (11); NAID #12125699]

Letter, Dwight D. Eisenhower to Bernard Montgomery re Montgomery's Outline Plan of Operations, December 31, 1944 [DDE's Pre-Presidential Papers, Principal File, Box 83, Montgomery, Bernard (11); NAID #12125692]

Diary Entry, December 31, 1944 [DDE's Pre-Presidential Papers, Principal File, Box 169, Butcher's Diary – Oct. 16 – Dec. 31, 1944 (4); NAID #12126626]

Cable, Bernard Montgomery to Dwight D. Eisenhower, January 2, 1945 [DDE's Pre-Presidential Papers, Principal File, Box 83, Montgomery, Bernard (10); NAID #12125642]

Diary Entry, January 7, 1945 [DDE's Pre-Presidential Papers, Principal File, Box 169, Butcher's Diary – Jan. 1 – Jan. 28, 1945 (1); NAID #12126630]

Letter, Bernard Montgomery to Omar Bradley, January 12, 1945 [DDE's Pre-Presidential Papers, Principal File, Box 83, Montgomery, Bernard (10); NAID #12125643]

Letter, Dwight D. Eisenhower to George C. Marshall, January 12, 1945 [DDE's Pre-Presidential Papers, Principal File, Box 80, Marshall, George C. (7); NAID #12123688]

Diary Entry, January 14, 1945 [DDE's Pre-Presidential Papers, Principal File, Box 169, Butcher's Diary – Jan. 1 – Jan. 28, 1945 (2); NAID #12126633]

Cable, Bernard Montgomery to Dwight D. Eisenhower re conclusion of Ardennes campaign, January 16, 1945 [DDE's Pre-Presidential Papers, Principal File, Box 83, Montgomery, Bernard (10); NAID #12125644]

Letter, Major General J. Lawton Collins to Major General James L. Collins, January 16, 1945 [J. Lawton Collins Papers, Box 3, 201 File--Personal Letter File--1945 (4); NAID #12113405]

Diary Entry, January 21, 1945 [DDE's Pre-Presidential Papers, Principal File, Box 169, Butcher's Diary, Jan. 1 – Jan. 28, 1945 (3); NAID #12126636]

Ardennes: Translation of Written Questions Answered by Generaloberst Alfred Jodl and Approved by General Feldmarschall Wilhelm Keitel, July 20, 1945 [Walter Bedell Smith Collection of World War II Documents, Box 41, Interviews with High-Ranking German Officers (2); NAID #12130736]

Ardennes Counteroffensive: Additional Interview with Generaloberst Alfred Jodl, July 26, 1945 [Walter Bedell Smith Collection of World War II Documents, Box 41, Interviews with High-Ranking German Officers (2); NAID #12130740]

Battle of the Ardennes: Interview with Lieutenant Colonel Otto Skorzeny, August 12, 1945 [Walter Bedell Smith Collection of World War II Documents, Box 41, Interviews with High-Ranking German Officers (3); NAID #12130741]

“The Ardennes Campaign” by General Courtney H. Hodges, 1946 [Courtney H. Hodges Papers, Box 9, 1946 Ardennes Campaign; NAID #12126303]

Letter, H. R. Bull to Hanson Baldwin, September 12, 1946 [Harold R. Bull Papers, Box 2, Additional Papers, 1944-1948; NAID #12113394]

Memorandum for the Chief of Staff, September 12, 1946 [Harold R. Bull Papers, Box 2, Additional Papers, 1944-1948; NAID #12113395]

Oral History Transcripts:

Oral History Interviews with Thomas J. Betts, Interview #4 only [Dwight D. Eisenhower Library: Oral History Collection, Oral History Transcripts; NAID #621942]

Oral History Interviews with Raymond Hoffman, Interview #9 only [Dwight D. Eisenhower Library: Oral History Collection, Oral History Transcripts; NAID #5711877]

Oral History Interviews with John W. Leonard, Interview #2 only [Dwight D. Eisenhower Library: Oral History Collection, Oral History Transcripts; NAID #5717350]

Oral History Interviews with Elwood Quesada, Interview #5 only [Dwight D. Eisenhower Library: Oral History Collection, Oral History Transcripts; NAID #5718434]

Oral History Interviews with William Simpson, Interview #5 only [Dwight D. Eisenhower Library: Oral History Collection, Oral History Transcripts; NAID #5719366]

Photographs:

Images in the audiovisual collection

Secondary Sources:

Cole, Hugh M. The Ardennes: Battle of the Bulge. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Chief of Military History, Department of the Army, 1965. http://www.history.army.mil/books/wwii/7-8/7-8_CONT.HTM

Merriam, Robert E. Dark December: The Full Account of the Battle of the Bulge. Chicago: Ziff-Davis Publishing Company, 1947. https://archive.org/details/DarkDecember

The Defense of St. Vith, Belgium, 17-23 December 1944: An Historical Example of Armor in the Defense. Ft. Knox, KY: The School, 1949. Print. http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a952910.pdf

Additional Information:

The Ardennes Campaign: Battle of the Bulge Subject Guide